Jabalpur (Hindi :जबलपुर) is a city in the state of Madhya Pradesh in India. Jabalpur is the administrative headquarters of Jabalpur district and Jabalpur division. Jabalpur is located in the Mahakaushal region in the geographic center of India. Jabalpur is one of the largest city in Madhya Pradesh. Jabalpur was the 27th largest urban conglomeration in India in 2001 (2001 Census). On a global scale, Jabalpur was the 325th largest city or urban area in the world in 2006 and Jabalpur it is estimated to be 294th largest city in the world by 2020. Jabalpur stands 121st in term of the fastest growing cities and urban areas in the world in 2006. Jabalpur is the first district in India to have obtained the comprehensive ISO-9001 certificate. This came into force from April 1, 2007.
Jabalpur is one of the highest income tax paying cities in India since the headquarters of many important Central & State Departments are situated there and thousands of government employees are employed. Jabalpur also houses the Madhya Pradesh High Court.It is known as the administrative capital of Madhya Pradesh. It was called Sanskardhani by Vinoba Bhave.
Jabalpur is located in the Mahakoshal region in the geographic center of India. Jabalpur is one of the largest city in Madhya Pradesh. It was the 27th largest urban conglomeration in India in 2001 (2001 Census). On a global scale, Jabalpur was the 325th largest city or urban area in the world in 2006 and Jabalpur it is estimated to be 294th largest city in the world by 2020 . Jabalpur stands 120 in term of the fastest growing cities and urban areas in the world in 2006. Jabalpur is the first district in India to have obtained the comprehensive ISO-9001 certificate. This has come into force from April 1, 2007.
|High court Jabalpur|
Jabalpur also houses the Madhya Pradesh High Court.It is known as the administrative capital of Madhya Pradesh. The main bench of the Madhya Pradesh High Court sits in Jabalpur. The numerous gorges in the neighboring rocks surround the city with a series of lakes, which are shaded by trees and add much greenery to the suburbs. However, many of these lakes now have been encroached upon for the purpose of fishing or for building works, although the greenery still exists.
The city itself dates from the nineteenth century. It has a beautiful collection of Marble Rocks called Bhedaghat bordering the holy Narmada River. Many visitors every year come to visit Jabalpur because of this major attraction. Jabalpur is zonal headquarters for the western central division of Indian railways.
Jabalpur has a big Defence and Military Centre - HQ of the MPSEB Area, the headquarters of West Central Railway Zone, the Madhya Pradesh State Electricity Board, and the Madhya Pradesh High Courts. It is also known for housing spiritual leaders like Maharishi Mahesh Yogi of Transcendental Meditation and Bhagwan Rajneesh.
The name of the city Jabalpur comes from a combination of the Arabic word Jabal= Mountain and the Sancrit word Pura = city. Jabal is also the root word in the name of Gibraltar which was originally called Jebel al Tariq (Tariq's Mountain). It is believed that Jabalpur is the tapasya bhumi of a mythological figure known as sage Jabalie, from whom the name Jabalpur is derived. Ashokan relics have been found. Later on it was the capital of the famous Tripuri kingdom in the (9th–10th centuries).
In AD 875, it was taken over by the Kalachuri dynasty who made Jabalpur their capital. In the 13th century, the Gonds seized it and made it their capital. Inscriptions record the existence during the 11th and 12th centuries of a local line of princes of the Haihai people who are closely connected with the history of Gondwana.
In the 16th century the Gond raja of Garha-Mandla extended his power over fifty-two districts, including the present Jabalpur. During the minority of his grandson, Asaf Khan, the viceroy of Kara Manikpur, conquered the Garha principality and held it at first as an independent chief. Eventually he submitted to the Mughal emperor Akbar. From time to time, the Mughal rulers tried to overrun it. The legendary Gond Queen Rani Durgavati also died fighting the Mughal forces led by the great Mughal Emperor Akbar.
The Mughal Empire, however, enjoyed little more than a nominal supremacy; and the princes of Garha-Mandla maintained a practical independence until their subjugation by the Maratha governors of Sagar in 1781. In 1798 the Maratha Peshwa granted the Narmada valley to the Bhonsle princes of Nagpur, who continued to hold the district until the British occupied it in 1818 after defeating the Marathas. The British made Jabalpur the commission headquarters of the Narmada territories and established a cantonment here.
Under the British Raj, Jabalpur, usually spell Jubbulpore, became the capital of the Saugor and Nerbudda Territories, which was part of the British North-Western Province. At that time it became infamous for the Thuggee murders, but made more famous by the man who suppressed thugee, Col. Sleeman, who was also appointed commissioner at Jabalpur. The Saugor and Nerbudda Territories became part of the new Central Provinces in 1861 which in 1903 became the Central Provinces and Berar. By the early 20th Century Jabalpur was the headquarters of a brigade in the 5th division of the Southern Army.
An important landmark event was the holding of the Tripuri Congress session in 1939 that was presided over by Subhash Chandra Bose. Politically under Lokmanya Tilak's direction Jhanda Satyagraha was launched with success (who visited 3 times) Mahatma Gandhi visited 4 times and famous Congress session was held at Tripuri (Jabalpur) in 1939 when Subhash Chandra Bose was elected the Congress President against the wishes of Mahatma Gandhi. A memorial Kamania gate was erected in city.
After India's independence in 1947, the Central Provinces and Berar became the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh
The exceptional Topography of Jabalpur with hills all around the city gives it a picturesque setting. Some Hindi movies like Jisdesh main ganga behti hai, Ashoka etc. have been shot here. The picturesque setting though is a nightmare for town planners and developers. The Central Railways has constructed railway lines winding along these hills, somewhat akin to a horseshoe. The hills of Jabalpur, with varied mineral content are a popular destination for Geologists and Archaeologists. Palaeontologist, with the finding of a fossilised Dinosaur in the area.
The topography of Jabalpur is unique. The city is surrounded by low, rocky, and barren hillocks. Some of which form a barrier for continuous development of urban form and restrict inter-links between various parts of the city. Kariapather hillock to the north-east, Sita Pahad and Kandhari hills to the east, Madan Mahal hills and rocks outcrops to the south-west. Railway line girding the city like a "horse shoe" had its due influence in the growth of urban form. The main water reservoir of Khandari and Pariyat are located to the north-east direction of the city. Recently water is also drawn from Narmada River by Public Health Dept.
The main crops are wheat, rice, pulses, oilseeds, maize etc. Nearby is Bargi Dam on the river Narmada for irrigation, water supply and power generation. The town is surrounded by several lakes and water tank used for culture in them and in rivers. Besides the area is rich in limestone, refractory clay, bauxite, iron ore, manganese and other deposits. Three Cement plants several fire clay refractories lime stone kilns and good industrial estates nearby. Beside defence factories like GCF, Vehicle factory, G.I.F. and Ordnance factory depot.
The presence of the Narmada and the rule of Gond and Maratha dynasties has made Jabalpur a primarily Hindu dominated area. The Mughal rule brought in a sizable Muslim population. The city has seen the worst form of Hindu Muslim riots in the 60s. The rise in the population of the city especially village folk migrating to the city are settling in slums on the outskirts of Jabalpur. The estimates are that by the year 2015, the population of the city will double to a whopping two million people. Moreover setting up of Central government units increased the population of the city and made it more cosmopolitan.Hindi is the first language of the state and spoken and understood in the city. The Mughals brought Urdu and the influence of Maratha rulers has given Marathi to the multilingual culture of Jabalpur.
Jabalpur, the city of marbles, is fast emerging as a centre of trade and commerce in the state of Madhya Pradesh. In the context of rapid growth of the city, increasing mobility, high travel demand, increasing intensity of traffic, congestion, delays, accidents and other such problems, public mass transport system of the city stands out as the most critical issue. The intra-city public transport system is essentially road based with 110 private mini buses and 250 tempos and 10,000 auto rickshaws. Since there was no specialized and effective regulatory agency to monitor the system a special purpose vehicle in the form of public limited company Jabalpur City Transport Services Limited has been set up to operate and manage the public transport system in Jabalpur with PPP model to overcome financial constraints. Other than that MiniBuses, Autos, Tempos enable good and cheap transportation in the city. Cycle Rickshaws are also helpful in local routes which are quite cheap and ecofriendly and constitute the main source of transportation.
Attractions within 200 kilometres (120 mi) include:
· Jageshwar Nath Shiv Temple at Bandakpur near Damoh
· Kundalpur Jain Teerth Kshetra, near Damoh
· Vishnu-Varaha Temple, Majholi
· Pench National Park
· Kanha Tiger Reserve
· Bandhavgarh Nation Park
· Hanumantal Bada Jain Mandir, a 17th-century Jain temple
· Madan Mahel, a fort built by the Gondi king Madansahi in 1116
· Rani Durgavati Museum, built in 1964 to commemorate Rani Durgavati. The museum hosts ancient relics, sculptures and a collection of items related to Mahatma Gandhi
· Bargi Dam Reservoir
· Dhuandhar Falls and Marble Rock in Bhedaghat, 15 kilometres (9.3 mi) from the city
· Kachnar City, known for a 76-foot (23 m)-high Shiva statue housing a cavern with replicas of Shiva lingas from 12 shrines nationwide.
· Tilwara Ghat, location of the Tilwadeshwar temple and where Gandhi's ashes were immersed
· Jilehri Ghat, a swimming and picnicking spot
· Chounshath Yogni-Shiva Parvati Temple - Ancient sculpture
Osho Ashram Supatal, where Rajneesh was enlightened